A Laryngectomy is an operation to remove the Larynx. The Larynx is responsible for speech and for preventing food from entering the airway during swallowing.
After a Laryngectomy, air can no longer pass to and from the lungs and mouth due to the connection between the mouth and the windpipe no longer existing. Because of this a new opening for air to enter the lungs must be made in the front of the neck.
This new opening is called a Stoma and is permanent, it is the upper portion of the windpipe brought out to the front of the neck.